Charging Systems of Electric Vehicles

General Information

Introduction

Infrastructure investments required in the cities for electric vehicles must start as soon as possible and necessary arrangements must be implemented. Most important issues regarding infrastructural works are charging stations and the infrastructural systems required by them.

Installment of charging stations is the principal service that will popularize the use of electric vehicles.

Electric Vehicles and Plug-in Vehicles

Today, a driver travelling an average of 120 km/day can easily drive an electric vehicle. With the popularization of electric vehicles, the availability of electric stations is increasing the advancing technology allows vehicles to travel longer distances.

Charging Standards of Electric Vehicles

Thanks to the pilot signal;

  • Charging unit detects if the vehicle is connected to itself or not.
  • When the vehicle wants the energy in the system
  • Existence of ground connection of the device
  • Charging unit can detect the ventilation need of the vehicle.

 

MOD 1: Charge from standard socket, without any communication or safety connection (RCD) (up to 16A)

 


 

MOD 2: Charge from standard socket, with restricted communication or safety connection on cable (up to 32A)

 


 

MOD 3: Charge from specified socket, with full connection and safety connection (3 Phase up to 32A)

 

 


 

 

MOD 4: DC Fast Charge. Charge via OFF-Board Charging station.

 

 


STANDARDS

AC – On-Board

For EUROPE; IEC 62196-2

  • 230V(1phase) – 400V(3phase)
  • 16A/32A/64A
  • 3,7kW – 43kW
  • Capability to restrict charge current

TYPE 1 (SAE J1772), TYPE 2 (MENNEKES), TYPE 3 (SCAME)

 

For USA; SAE J1772

  • 120V(1phase) – 240V(2phase)
  • 16A/32A
  • Capability to restrict charge current

DC – Off-Board

DC – Off-Board

For SEA and Japan CHAdeMO

  • 250V DC
  • Up to 200A
  • Capability to restrict charge current

For EUROPE CCS Combo, IEC 62196-2

  • 400V DC
  • 125A
  • 22kW-125kW
  • Capability to restrict charge current
  • Mod-2 / Mod 4

DC and AC Charging Station Investment Cost

DC charging stations can be between 5 to 10 times as costly as AC charging stations depending on their power capacity. For example, today, 1 standard feature AC charging station unit costs TRY 7000 to 10,000 while a DC charging station costs TRY 35,000 to 80,000.

In the event that the electrical infrastructure of the business where the charging station will be installed is inadequate, redrawing the electrical infrastructure, obtaining confirmations from relevant authorities, and the process follow-up cost around TRY 3000 to 5000 per business. If the electrical infrastructure of the business is suitable, these operations will not be required for the installation of the charging unit.

Payment and Safety

Payments for parking fee, service cost, and electric usage can be made via magnetic card, vehicle recognition system, SMS confirmation over mobile phone, or the application in which credit card info is saved. Users’ current or monthly usage is archived, and invoices are distributed among them according to the

amount they used.

The communication between charging stations and the central server will be established. Each customer will start charging with the specified payment method and the charging invoice belonging to this system for the specified time will be provided to the customer from the business. Information as to when a user made a purchase or how much energy they bought on the system will be archived in the control center.

Target Group and Usage Area of the Product

Charging units will feature LCD color touchscreen, RFID card reader and communication protocol being able to communicate with the center in the local network. It can process the obtained current and voltage information thanks to its sensors and direct the vehicles by performing power calculation, pricing, and load status evaluation. It can also work in integration with smart network systems.

Thanks to the required pilot signal, it can convey information such as the ventilation need or whether the electric vehicle is connected to the charging device.

The 5th Pin on the standard connector is the proximity sensor that detects if the connector is fully connected or not, connector is connected to the ground line through the resistance on it. The length of the pin being short and mechanical turn-off of a switch after connection change the voltage in the pilot signal and start the charging operation.

RFID module is a security method at the highest level for personal use ensuring that the device can only be used by the card owner. A database will be created for the information regarding the previous period including the amount of energy spent and the amount of payment to be made by each user. The card will be asked to be scanned at the beginning and end of each charging operation, which prevents unwanted intervention to the charging operation by any external source.

Graphical LCD touchscreen is planned to be used as user interface. Its size on the screen is specified so as not to impede with information requested from the station and the comfortable use of the menu.

Advanced Applications

Membership system for users may allow the provision of a wider range of services.

In such a service sale, RF card system is improved to offer options of payment via mobile or credit card as in travel card or pass card systems.

LOGISTICS

  • Parking space and the charging station user interface must be as close to each other as possible.
  • If there the number of parking spaces with charging station is not enough, charging station parking spaces must only be used for vehicle charging.
  • Service must be provided to as many vehicles as possible.

FUNCTIONALITY

  • Charging must be performed in a well-ventilated area. Batteries might emit gas during improper or excessive charging
  • Each output must be measured and priced separately.
  • Sockets must capable of dual measurement to be suitable in the case of a possible change to smart networks in the future. In the case of installment of smart network, network operators must be able to observe remotely.

INTERFACE

1- Everyone who can speak simple Turkish or English must be able to use the interface.

2- The position of the screen must be appropriate

  • Charging steps must be instructed interactively. The interface must inform the user of the next step after they complete each action.
  • Charging status and the time left must be shown on the screen.
  • The user must be able to enter charging parameters in charging mode; charge time and

STRUCTURE

1- Station must definitely be anchored for safety.

2- Must be identifiable from a distance of 100 meters

3- The type of the station must be understandable from its form and components.

SAFETY

1- The connection between the vehicle and the station must not harm drivers.

2- No sharp or pointed protrusions must be existent.

PRODUCT APPEARANCE

1- Must be resistant to outdoor weather conditions (Outer case provides IP55 protection and socket part provides IP54 protection)

2- The product can be fitted with a preferred graphical design.

  • Gray ABS PE plastic material
  • User information screen and panel

Installation Steps of the Charging Station

  1. Agreement (in 5 to 10 days)
  2. Product selection and determination of the features (in 1 to 3 days)
  3. Determination of the application locations (in 1 to 3 days)
  4. Electrical infrastructure discovery on location (in 3 to 7 days)
  5. Determination of the area of charge station installation on location (in 1 to 3 days)
  6. Carrying out of the electrical project for the location, obtaining relevant permissions from authorities (in 7 to 20 days)
  7. Installation of the electrical infrastructure on location (in 7 to 15 days)
  8. Product delivery, mounting in place, commissioning (in 7 to 15 days)